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Linux指令入门指令

• 2020 年 04 月 07 日 • Linux技术

Linux指令入门-文件与权限

文件目录管理命令

tree

命令描述:tree命令用于以树状图列出目录的内容。

tree命令没有内置在系统中,使用tree命令需要执行以下命令来安装:

yum install -y tree

命令使用示例:

tree /usr/share/wallpapers/

命令输出结果:

img

ls

命令描述: ls命令用于显示指定工作目录下的内容。

命令格式:ls [参数] [目录名]

参数说明:

参数说明
-a显示所有文件及目录(包括隐藏文件)
-l将文件的权限、拥有者、文件大小等详细信息列出(ll等同于ls -l
-r将文件反序列出(默认按英文字母正序)
-t将文件按创建时间正序列出
-R递归遍历目录下文件

命令使用示例:

查看当前目录下的所有文件(包括隐藏文件)。

ll -a

命令输出结果:

img

pwd

命令描述:获取当前工作目录的绝对路径。

命令使用示例:

img

cd

命令描述:cd命令用于切换工作目录。

命令使用示例:

img

在路径表示中:

  • 一个半角句号(.)表示当前目录,例如路径./app/log等同于app/log。
  • 两个半角句号(..)表示上级目录,例如路径/usr/local/../src等同于/usr/src,其中local和src目录同级。

cd命令的默认参数为~,符号~表示当前用户的家目录,即在root用户登录时,命令cdcd ~cd /root执行效果相同。

touch

命令描述:touch命令用于修改文件或者目录的时间属性,包括存取时间和更改时间。若文件不存在,系统会建立一个新的文件。

命令格式:touch [参数] [文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-c如果指定文件不存在,不会建立新文件
-r使用参考文件的时间记录
-t设置文件的时间记录

命令使用示例:

  • 创建两个空文件。
    img
  • 修改demo1.txt的时间记录为当前系统时间。
    cmd_touch_2
  • 更新demo2.txt的时间记录,使其和demo1.txt的时间记录相同。
    img

mkdir

命令描述:mkdir命令用于新建子目录。-p参数确保目录名称存在,不存在的就新建一个。

命令使用示例:

新建目录a/b/c/d,并使用tree命令查看创建后的目录结构。

img

rm

命令描述:rm命令用于删除一个文件或者目录。

命令格式:rm [参数] [文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-i删除前逐一询问确认
-f无需确认,直接删除
-r删除目录下所有文件

命令使用示例:

无需确认直接删除文件。

img

无需确认直接删除目录a及其目录下所有子目录和文件。

img

cp

命令描述: cp命令主要用于复制文件或目录。

命令格式:cp [参数] [源文件] [目标文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-d复制时保留链接
-f覆盖已经存在的目标文件而不给出提示
-i覆盖前询问
-p除复制文件的内容外,还把修改时间和访问权限也复制到新文件中
-r复制目录及目录内的所有项目

命令使用示例:

将目录c/d中的所有内容复制到目录a/b下。

img

mv

命令描述: mv命令用来为文件或目录改名、或将文件或目录移入其它位置。

命令格式:mv [参数] [源文件] [目标文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-i若指定目录已有同名文件,则先询问是否覆盖旧文件
-f如果目标文件已经存在,不会询问而直接覆盖

命令使用示例:

  • 将文件名a.txt改为b.txt。
    img
  • 将c目录移动到a/b/c/d/下。
    img
  • 将当前目录内容全部移动到/tmp目录中。
mv ./* /tmp

rename

命令描述:rename命令用字符串替换的方式批量改变文件名。rename命令有C语言和Perl语言两个版本,这里介绍C语言版本的rename命令,不支持正则表达式。

命令使用示例:

  • 将当前目录下所有文件名中的字符串demo改为大写的字符串DEMO。
    img
  • 将当前目录下所有.txt文件后缀都改为text
    img

文件权限管理

ls命令可以查看Linux系统上的文件、目录和设备的权限。

ls -l /boot/

img

上述ls -l命令中显示的第一列就是文件权限信息,共11位字符,分5部分。

  • 第1位表示存档类型,d表示目录,-表示一般文件。
  • 第2~4位表示当前用户的权限(属主权限)。
  • 第5~7位表示同用户组的用户权限(属组权限)。
  • 第8~10位表示不同用户组的用户权限(其他用户权限)。
  • 第11位是一个半角句号.,表示SELinux安全标签。

用户权限每组三位,rwx分别表示读、写、执行权限,对应八进制表示为4、2、1。

例如efi目录的root用户权限为drwxr-xr-x.

  • 该目录对root用户具有读写和执行所有权限。
  • 该目录对root组其他用户有读和执行权限。
  • 该目录对其他用户只有执行权限。

所以该权限表示对应八进制权限表示为:

  • 属主权限:4+2+1=7
  • 属组权限:4+1=5
  • 其他用户权限:1。

即751。

chmod

chmod命令用于修改文件权限mode,-R参数以递归方式对子目录和文件进行修改。

命令使用示例:

1. 新建名为hello.sh的Shell脚本,该脚本将会输出Hello World。用ll命令可以看到新建的脚本没有执行权限,其权限用八进制表示为644。

echo "echo 'Hello World'" > hello.sh
ll

img

2. 将hello.sh文件增加属主的执行权限。

chmod u+x hello.sh
ll

img

3. 将hello.sh文件撤销属主的执行权限。

chmod u-x hello.sh
ll

img

4. 将hello.sh文件权限修改为八进制表示的744权限。

chmod 744 hello.sh
ll

img

5. 使用bash命令解释器执行hello.sh脚本文件。

/bin/bash hello.sh

img

其中,u+x表示增加属主的执行权限,u表示属主,g表示属组,o表示其他,a表示所有用户。

chown

chown命令修改文件的属主和属组;-R参数以递归方式对子目录和文件进行修改;ls -l命令显示的第三列和第四列就是文件的属主和属组信息。

命令使用示例:

1. 新建一个文本文件test.txt,用ll命令可以看到该文件的属主和属组是root。whoami命令可以查看当前Shell环境登录的用户名。

whoami
touch test.txt
ll

img

2. 创建两个用户。

useradd test
useradd admin

3. 修改test.txt文件的属主用户为test。

chown test test.txt
ll

img

4. 修改test.txt文件的属主和属组为admin。

chown admin:admin test.txt
ll

img

chgrp

chgrp命令用于修改文件的属组。

命令使用示例:

将test.txt文件的属组改为root。

chgrp root test.txt
ll

img

Linux指令入门-文本处理

连接ECS服务器

1. 打开系统自带的终端工具。

  • Windows:CMD或Powershell。
  • MAC:Terminal。

Windows用户请检查系统中是否安装有ssh工具。检查方法:

1)在终端中输入命令ssh -V。

ssh -V

2)出现如下结果说明已安装。

img

3)否则请下载安装 OpenSSH。

2. 在终端中输入连接命令ssh [username]@[ipaddress]。您需要将其中的username和ipaddress替换为第1小节中创建的ECS服务器的登录名和公网地址。例如:

ssh root@123.123.123.123

img

命令显示结果如下:

img

3. 输入yes。

4. 同意继续后将会提示输入登录密码。 密码为已创建的云服务的ECS的登录密码。

img

登录成功后会显示如下信息。

img

文本编辑工具Vim

vim的三种操作模式

vim有三种操作模式,分别是命令模式(Command mode)、输入模式(Insert mode)和底线命令模式(Last line mode)。

三种模式切换快捷键:

模式快捷键
命令模式ESC
输入模式i或a
底线命令模式:
  • 命令模式

在命令模式中控制光标移动和输入命令,可对文本进行复制、粘贴、删除和查找等工作。

使用命令vim filename后进入编辑器视图后,默认模式就是命令模式,此时敲击键盘字母会被识别为一个命令,例如在键盘上连续敲击两次d,就会删除光标所在行。

以下是在命令模式中常用的快捷操作:

操作快捷键
光标左移h
光标右移l(小写L)
光标上移k
光标下移j
光标移动到下一个单词w
光标移动到上一个单词b
移动游标到第n行nG
移动游标到第一行gg
移动游标到最后一行G
快速回到上一次光标所在位置Ctrl+o
删除当前字符x
删除前一个字符X
删除整行dd
删除一个单词dw或daw
删除至行尾d$或D
删除至行首d^
删除到文档末尾dG
删除至文档首部d1G
删除n行ndd
删除n个连续字符nx
将光标所在位置字母变成大写或小写~
复制游标所在的整行yy(3yy表示复制3行)
粘贴至光标后(下)p
粘贴至光标前(上)P
剪切dd
交换上下行ddp
替换整行,即删除游标所在行并进入插入模式cc
撤销一次或n次操作u{n}
撤销当前行的所有修改U
恢复撤销操作Ctrl+r
整行将向右缩进>>
整行将向左退回<<
若档案没有更动,则不储存离开,若档案已经被更动过,则储存后离开ZZ
  • 输入模式

在命令模式下按i或a键就进入了输入模式,在输入模式下,您可以正常的使用键盘按键对文本进行插入和删除等操作。

  • 底线命令模式

在命令模式下按:键就进入了底线命令模式,在底线命令模式中可以输入单个或多个字符的命令。

以下是底线命令模式中常用的快捷操作:

操作命令
保存:w
退出:q
保存并退出:wq(:wq!表示强制保存退出)
将文件另存为其他文件名:w new_filename
显示行号:set nu
取消行号:set nonu
使本行内容居中:ce
使本行文本靠右:ri
使本行内容靠左:le
向光标之下寻找一个名称为word的字符串:/word
向光标之上寻找一个字符串名称为word的字符串:?word
重复前一个搜寻的动作:n
从第一行到最后一行寻找word1字符串,并将该字符串取代为word2:1,$s/word1/word2/g :%s/word1/word2/g

使用示例

在本示例将使用vim在文本文件中写入一首唐诗。

1. 新建一个文件并进入vim命令模式。

vim 静夜思.txt

img

2. 按下i进入输入模式,输入《静夜思》的诗名。

img

3. 按下ECS键回到命令模式,并输入底线命令:ce,使诗名居中。

img

4. 按下o键换行并进入输入模式,输入第一行诗。

img

5. 按下ECS键回到命令模式,并输入底线命令:ce,使第一行诗居中。

img

6. 按下o键换行并进入输入模式,输入第二行诗。

img

7. 按下ECS键回到命令模式,并输入底线命令:ce,使第二行诗居中。

img

8. 在命令模式中执行底线命令:wq离开vim。

文本文件查看命令

cat

命令描述:cat命令用于查看内容较少的纯文本文件。

命令格式:cat [选项] [文件]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-n或--number显示行号
-b或--number-nonblank显示行号,但是不对空白行进行编号
-s或--squeeze-blank当遇到有连续两行以上的空白行,只显示一行的空白行

命令使用示例:

1. 将一个自增序列写入test.txt文件中。

for i in $(seq 1 10); do echo $i >> test.txt ; done

2. 查看文件内容。

 cat test.txt

命令输出结果:

img

3. 将文件内容清空。

cat /dev/null > test.txt

4. 再次检查文件内容。

cat test.txt

命令输出结果:

img

more

命令描述:more命令从前向后分页显示文件内容。

常用操作命令:

操作作用
Enter向下n行,n需要定义,默认为1行
Ctrl+F或空格键(Space)向下滚动一页
Ctrl+B向上滚动一页
=输出当前行的行号
!命令调用Shell执行命令
q退出more

命令使用示例:

从第20行开始分页查看系统日志文件/var/log/messages。

more +20 /var/log/messages

命令输出结果:

img

less

命令描述:less命令可以对文件或其它输出进行分页显示,与moe命令相似,但使用 less 可以随意浏览文件,而 more 仅能向前移动,却不能向后移动。

命令格式:less [参数] 文件

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-e当文件显示结束后,自动离开
-m显示类似more命令的百分比
-N显示每行的行号
-s显示连续空行为一行

命令常用操作:

快捷键说明
/字符串向下搜索字符串
?字符串向上搜索字符串
n重复前一个搜索
N反向重复前一个搜索
b或pageup向上翻一页
空格键或pagedown向下翻一页
u向前翻半页
d向后翻半页
y向前滚动一行
回车键向后滚动一行
q退出less命令

命令使用示例:

查看命令历史使用记录并通过less分页显示。

history | less

head

命令描述:head命令用于查看文件开头指定行数的内容。

命令格式:head [参数] [文件]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-n [行数]显示开头指定行的文件内容,默认为10
-c [字符数]显示开头指定个数的字符数
-q不显示文件名字信息,适用于多个文件,多文件时默认会显示文件名

命令使用示例:

查看/etc/passwd文件的前5行内容。

head -5 /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

img

tail

命令描述:tail命令用于查看文档的后N行或持续刷新内容。

命令格式:tail [参数] [文件]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-f显示文件最新追加的内容
-q当有多个文件参数时,不输出各个文件名
-v当有多个文件参数时,总是输出各个文件名
-c [字节数]显示文件的尾部n个字节内容
-n [行数]显示文件的尾部n行内容

命令使用示例:

查看/var/log/messages系统日志文件的最新10行,并保持实时刷新。

tail -f -n 10 /var/log/messages

img

ctrl+c键退出文本实时查看界面。

stat

命令描述:用来显示文件的详细信息,包括inode、atime、mtime、ctime等。

命令使用示例:

查看/etc/passwd文件的详细信息。

stat /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

img

wc

命令描述:wc命令用于统计指定文本的行数、字数、字节数。

命令格式:wc [参数] [文件]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-l只显示行数
-w只显示单词数
-c只显示字节数

命令使用示例:

统计/etc/passwd文件的行数。

wc -l /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

img

file

命令描述: file命令用于辨识文件类型。

命令格式:file [参数] [文件]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-b列出辨识结果时,不显示文件名称
-c详细显示指令执行过程,便于排错或分析程序执行的情形
-f [文件]指定名称文件,其内容有一个或多个文件名称时,让file依序辨识这些文件,格式为每列一个文件名称
-L直接显示符号连接所指向的文件类别

命令使用示例:

查看/var/log/messages文件的文件类型。

file /var/log/messages

命令输出结果:

img

diff

命令描述:diff命令用于比较文件的差异。

命令使用示例:

1. 构造两个相似的文件

echo -e '第一行\n第二行\n我是log1第3行\n第四行\n第五行\n第六行' > 1.log
echo -e '第一行\n第二行\n我是log2第3行\n第四行' > 2.log

2. 分别查看两个文件img

3. 使用diff查看两个文件的差异

img

对比结果中的3c3表示两个文件在第3行有不同,5,6d4表示2.log文件相比1.log文件在第4行处开始少了1.log文件的第5和第6行。

文本文件处理命令

grep

命令描述:grep命令用于查找文件里符合条件的字符串。

grep全称是Global Regular Expression Print,表示全局正则表达式版本,它能使用正则表达式搜索文本,并把匹配的行打印出来。

在Shell脚本中,grep通过返回一个状态值来表示搜索的状态:

  • 0:匹配成功。
  • 1:匹配失败。
  • 2:搜索的文件不存在。

命令格式:grep [参数] [正则表达式] [文件]

命令常用参数说明:

参数说明
-c或--count计算符合样式的列数
-d recurse或-r指定要查找的是目录而非文件
-e [范本样式]指定字符串做为查找文件内容的样式
-E 或 --extended-regexp将样式为延伸的正则表达式来使用
-F 或 --fixed-regexp将样式视为固定字符串的列表
-G 或 --basic-regexp将样式视为普通的表示法来使用
-i 或 --ignore-case忽略字符大小写的差别
-n 或 --line-number在显示符合样式的那一行之前,标示出该行的列数编号
-v 或 --revert-match显示不包含匹配文本的所有行

命令使用示例:

  • 查看sshd服务配置文件中监听端口配置所在行编号。

    grep -n Port /etc/ssh/ssh_config

命令输出结果:

  • 查询字符串在文本中出现的行数。

    grep -c localhost /etc/hosts

命令输出结果:

  • 反向查找,不显示符合条件的行。

    ps -ef | grep sshd
ps -ef | grep -v grep | grep sshd

命令输出结果:

img

  • 以递归的方式查找目录下含有关键字的文件。

    grep -r *.sh /etc

命令输出结果:

  • 使用正则表达式匹配httpd配置文件中异常状态码响应的相关配置。

    grep 'ntp[0-9].aliyun.com' /etc/ntp.conf

命令输出结果:

sed

命令描述:sed是一种流编辑器,它是文本处理中非常中的工具,能够完美的配合正则表达式使用。

1. 处理时,把当前处理的行存储在临时缓冲区中,称为模式空间(pattern space)。
2. 接着用sed命令处理缓冲区中的内容,处理完成后,把缓冲区的内容送往屏幕。
3. 接着处理下一行,这样不断重复,直到文件末尾。

注意:

  • sed命令不会修改原文件,例如删除命令只表示某些行不打印输出,而不是从原文件中删去。
  • 如果要改变源文件,需要使用-i选项。

命令格式:sed [参数] [动作] [文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-e [script]执行多个script
-f [script文件]执行指定script文件
-n仅显示script处理后的结果
-i输出到原文件,静默执行(修改原文件)

动作说明:

动作说明
a在行后面增加内容
c替换行
d删除行
i在行前面插入
p打印相关的行
s替换内容

命令使用示例:

  • 删除第3行到最后一行内容。

    sed '3,$d' /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

  • 在最后一行新增行。

    sed '$a admin:x:1000:1000:admin:/home/admin:/bin/bash' /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

  • 替换内容。

    sed 's/SELINUX=disabled/SELINUX=enforcing/' /etc/selinux/config

命令输出结果:

  • 替换行。

    sed '1c abcdefg' /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

awk

命令描述:和 sed 命令类似,awk 命令也是逐行扫描文件(从第 1 行到最后一行),寻找含有目标文本的行,如果匹配成功,则会在该行上执行用户想要的操作;反之,则不对行做任何处理。

命令格式:awk [参数] [脚本] [文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-F fs指定以fs作为输入行的分隔符,awk 命令默认分隔符为空格或制表符
-f file读取awk脚本
-v val=val在执行处理过程之前,设置一个变量var,并给其设置初始值为val

内置变量:

变量用途
FS字段分隔符
$n指定分隔的第n个字段,如$1、$3分别表示第1、第三列
$0当前读入的整行文本内容
NF记录当前处理行的字段个数(列数)
NR记录当前已读入的行数
FNR当前行在源文件中的行号

awk中还可以指定脚本命令的运行时机。默认情况下,awk会从输入中读取一行文本,然后针对该行的数据执行程序脚本,但有时可能需要在处理数据前运行一些脚本命令,这就需要使用BEGIN关键字,BEGIN会在awsk读取数据前强制执行该关键字后指定的脚本命令。

和BEGIN关键字相对应,END关键字允许我们指定一些脚本命令,awk会在读完数据后执行它们。

命令使用示例:

  • 查看本机IP地址。

    ifconfig eth0 |awk '/inet/{print $2}'

命令输出结果:

  • 查看本机剩余磁盘容量。

    df -h |awk '/\/$/{print $4}'

命令输出结果:

  • 统计系统用户个数。

    awk -F: '$3<1000{x++} END{print x}' /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

  • 输出其中登录Shell不以nologin结尾(对第7个字段做!~反向匹配)的用户名、登录Shell信息。

    awk -F: '$7!~/nologin$/{print $1,$7}' /etc/passwd

命令输出结果:

  • 输出/etc/passwd文件中前三行记录的用户名和用户uid。

    head -3 /etc/passwd | awk  'BEGIN{FS=":";print "name\tuid"}{print $1,"\t"$3}END{print "sum lines "NR}'

命令输出结果:

  • 查看tcp连接数。

    netstat -na | awk '/^tcp/ {++S[$NF]} END {for(a in S) print a, S[a]}'

命令输出结果:

  • 关闭指定服务的所有的进程。

    ps -ef | grep httpd | awk {'print $2'} | xargs kill -9

cut

命令描述:cut命令主要用来切割字符串,可以对输入的数据进行切割然后输出。

命令格式:cut [参数] [文件]

参数说明:

参数说明
-b以字节为单位进行分割
-c以字符为单位进行分割
-d自定义分隔符,默认为制表符

命令使用示例:

  • 按字节进行切割。

img

  • 按字符进行切割。

img

  • 按指定字符进行切割。

img

tr

命令描述:tr命令用于对来自标准输入的字符进行替换、压缩和删除。

命令格式:tr [参数] [文本]

参数说明:

参数说明
-c反选指定字符
-d删除指定字符
-s将重复的字符缩减成一个字符
-t [第一字符集] [第二字符集]删除第一字符集较第二字符集多出的字符,使两个字符集长度相等

命令使用示例:

  • 将输入字符由大写转换为小写。

    echo "HELLO WORLD" | tr 'A-Z' 'a-z'

命令输出结果:

  • 删除字符。

    echo "hello 123 world 456" | tr -d '0-9'

命令输出结果:

  • 压缩字符。

    echo "thissss is      a text linnnnnnne." | tr -s ' sn'

命令输出结果:

  • 产生随机密码。

    cat /dev/urandom | tr -dc a-zA-Z0-9 | head -c 13

命令输出结果:

  • img

Linux指令入门-系统管理

连接ECS服务器

1. 打开系统自带的终端工具。

  • Windows:CMD或Powershell。
  • MAC:Terminal。

Windows用户请检查系统中是否安装有ssh工具。检查方法:

1)在终端中输入命令ssh -V。

2)出现如下结果说明已安装。

img

3)否则请下载安装 OpenSSH。

2. 在终端中输入连接命令ssh [username]@[ipaddress]。您需要将其中的username和ipaddress替换为第1小节中创建的ECS服务器的登录名和公网地址。例如:

ssh root@123.123.123.123

img

命令显示结果如下:

img

3. 输入yes。

4. 同意继续后将会提示输入登录密码。 密码为已创建的云服务的ECS的登录密码。

img

登录成功后会显示如下信息。

img

常用系统工作命令

echo

命令描述:echo命令用于在终端输出字符串或变量提取后的值。

命令格式:echo [字符串 | $变量]

命令用法示例:

  • 显示普通字符串

    echo "Hello World"
  • 显示变量

首先在shell环境中定义一个临时变量name。

export name="Tom"

使用echo命令将变量name的值显示到终端。

echo $name

输出结果:

img

  • 显示结果定向至文件

以下命令会将文本This is a test text.输出重定向到文件test.txt中,如果文件已存在,将会覆盖文件内容,如果不存在则创建。其中>符号表示输出重定向。

echo "This is a test text." > test.txt

如果您希望将文本追加到文件内容最后,而不是覆盖它,请使用>>输出追加重定向符号。

  • 显示命令执行结果

以下命令将会在终端显示当前的工作路径。

echo `pwd`

注意:pwd命令是用一对反引号(``)包裹,而不是一对单引号('')。

使用$(command)形式可以达到相同效果。

echo $(pwd)

输出结果:

img

date

命令描述:date命令用于显示和设置系统的时间和日期。

命令格式:date [选项] [+格式]

其中,时间格式的部分控制字符解释如下:

字符说明
%a当地时间的星期名缩写(例如: 日,代表星期日)
%A当地时间的星期名全称 (例如:星期日)
%b当地时间的月名缩写 (例如:一,代表一月)
%B当地时间的月名全称 (例如:一月)
%c当地时间的日期和时间 (例如:2005年3月3日 星期四 23:05:25)
%C世纪;比如 %Y,通常为省略当前年份的后两位数字(例如:20)
%d按月计的日期(例如:01)
%D按月计的日期;等于%m/%d/%y
%F完整日期格式,等价于 %Y-%m-%d
%j按年计的日期(001-366)
%p按年计的日期(001-366)
%r当地时间下的 12 小时时钟时间 (例如:11:11:04 下午)
%R24 小时时间的时和分,等价于 %H:%M
%s自UTC 时间 1970-01-01 00:00:00 以来所经过的秒数
%T时间,等于%H:%M:%S
%U一年中的第几周,以周日为每星期第一天(00-53)
%x当地时间下的日期描述 (例如:12/31/99)
%X当地时间下的时间描述 (例如:23:13:48)
%w一星期中的第几日(0-6),0 代表周一
%W一星期中的第几日(0-6),0 代表周一

命令用法示例:

  • 按照默认格式查看当前系统时间

    date

输出结果:

img

  • 按照指定格式查看当前系统时间

    date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"

输出结果:

img

  • 查看今天是当年中的第几天

    date "+%j"

输出结果:

img

  • 将系统的当前时间设置为2020年02月20日20点20分20秒

    date -s "20200220 20:20:20"

输出结果:

img

  • 校正系统时间,与网络时间同步

    1. 安装ntp校时工具
yum -y install ntp
  1. 用ntpdate从时间服务器更新时间
ntpdate time.nist.gov

输出结果:

img

wget

命令描述:在终端中下载文件。

命令格式:wget [参数] 下载地址

参数说明:

参数作用
-b后台下载
-P下载到指定目录
-t最大重试次数
-c断点续传
-p下载页面内所有资源,包括图片、视频等
-r递归下载

命令使用示例:

下载一张图片到路径/root/static/img/中,-p参数默认值为当前路径,如果指定路径不存在会自动创建。

wget -P /root/static/img/ http://img.alicdn.com/tfs/TB1.R._t7L0gK0jSZFxXXXWHVXa-2666-1500.png

输出结果:

img

ps

命令描述:ps命令用于查看系统中的进程状态。

命令格式:ps [参数]

命令参数说明:

参数作用
-a显示现行终端机下的所有程序,包括其他用户的程序
-u以用户为主的格式来显示程序状况
-x显示没有控制终端的进程,同时显示各个命令的具体路径
-e列出程序时,显示每个程序所使用的环境变量
-f显示当前所有的进程
-t指定终端机编号,并列出属于该终端机的程序的状况

命令使用示例:

ps -ef | grep sshd

输出结果:

img

top

命令描述:top命令动态地监视进程活动与系统负载等信息。

命令使用示例:

top

输出结果:

img

命令输出参数解释:

以上命令输出视图中分为两个区域,一个统计信息区,一个进程信息区。

  • 统计信息区

    • 第一行信息依次为:系统时间、运行时间、登录终端数、系统负载(三个数值分别为1分钟、5分钟、15分钟内的平均值,数值越小意味着负载越低)。
    • 第二行信息依次为:进程总数、运行中的进程数、睡眠中的进程数、停止的进程数、僵死的进程数。
    • 第三行信息依次为:用户占用资源百分比、系统内核占用资源百分比、改变过优先级的进程资源百分比、空闲的资源百分比等。
    • 第四行信息依次为:物理内存总量、内存使用量、内存空闲量、作为内核缓存的内存量。
    • 第五行信息依次为:虚拟内存总量、虚拟内存使用量、虚拟内存空闲量、预加载内存量。
  • 进程信息区

| 列名 | 含义 |
| :------ | :----------------------------------------------------------- |
| PID | 进程ID |
| USER | 进程所有者的用户名 |
| PR | 进程优先级 |
| NI | nice值。负值表示高优先级,正值表示低优先级 |
| VIRT | 进程使用的虚拟内存总量,单位kb |
| RES | 进程使用的、未被换出的物理内存大小,单位kb |
| SHR | 共享内存大小,单位kb |
| S | 进程状态D:不可中断的睡眠状态R:正在运行S:睡眠T:停止Z:僵尸进程 |
| %CPU | 上次更新到现在的CPU时间占用百分比 |
| %MEM | 进程使用的物理内存百分比 |
| TIME+ | 进程使用的CPU时间总计,单位1/100秒 |
| COMMAND | 命令名 |

按 q 键退出监控页面。

pidof

命令描述:pidof命令用于查询指定服务进程的PID值。

命令格式:pidof [服务名称]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-s仅返回一个进程号
-c只显示运行在root目录下的进程,这个选项只对root用户有效
-o忽略指定进程号的进程
-x显示由脚本开启的进程

命令使用示例:

查询出crond服务下的所有进程ID。

pidof crond

输出结果:

img

kill

命令描述:kill命令用于终止指定PID的服务进程。

kill可将指定的信息送至程序。预设的信息为SIGTERM(15),可将指定程序终止。若仍无法终止该程序,可使用SIGKILL(9)信息尝试强制删除程序。

命令格式:kill [参数] [进程PID]

命令使用示例:

删除pid为1247的进程。

kill -9 1247

killall

命令描述:killall命令用于终止指定名称的服务对应的全部进程。

命令格式:killall [进程名称]

命令使用示例:

删除crond服务下的所有进程。

killall crond

reboot

命令描述:reboot命令用来重启系统。

命令格式:reboot [-n] [-w] [-d] [-f] [-i]

命令参数说明:

  • -n:保存数据后再重新启动系统。
  • -w:仅做测试,并不是真的将系统重新开机,只会把重新开机的数据写入记录文件/var/log/wtmp。
  • -d:重新启动时不把数据写入记录文件/var/tmp/wtmp。
  • -f:强制重新开机,不调用shutdown指令的功能。
  • -i:关闭网络设置之后再重新启动系统。

命令使用示例:

reboot

poweroff

命令描述:poweroff命令用来关闭系统。

命令使用示例:

poweroff

系统状态检测命令

ifconfig

命令描述:ifconfig命令用于获取网卡配置与网络状态等信息。

命令示例:

img

命令输出说明:

  • 第一部分的第一行显示网卡状态信息。

    • eth0表示第一块网卡。
    • UP代表网卡开启状态。
    • RUNNING代表网卡的网线被接上。
    • MULTICAST表示支持组播。
  • 第二行显示网卡的网络信息。

    • inet(IP地址):172.16.132.195。
    • broadcast(广播地址):172.16.143.255。
    • netmask(掩码地址):255.255.240.0。
  • RX表示接收数据包的情况,TX表示发送数据包的情况。
  • lo表示主机的回环网卡,是一种特殊的网络接口,不与任何实际设备连接,而是完全由软件实现。与回环地址(127.0.0.0/8 或 ::1/128)不同,回环网卡对系统显示为一块硬件。任何发送到该网卡上的数据都将立刻被同一网卡接收到。

uname

命令描述:uname命令用于查看系统内核与系统版本等信息。

命令语法:uname [-amnrsv][--help][--version]

命令使用示例:

  • 显示系统信息。

    uname -a

命令输出结果:

  • 显示当前系统的硬件架构。

    uname -i

命令输出结果:

  • 显示操作系统发行编号。

    uname -r

命令输出结果:

  • 显示操作系统名称。

    uname -s

命令输出结果:

  • 显示主机名称。

    uname -n

命令输出结果:

uptime

命令描述:uptime 用于查看系统的负载信息。

命令使用示例:

img

命令输出说明:

负载信息命令输出值
当前服务器时间14:20:27
当前服务器运行时长2 min
当前用户数2 users
当前负载情况load average: 0.03, 0.04, 0.02(分别取1min,5min,15min的均值)

free

命令描述:free用于显示当前系统中内存的使用量信息。

命令语法:free [-bkmotV][-s <间隔秒数>]

命令参数说明:

参数说明
-b以Byte为单位显示内存使用情况
-k以KB为单位显示内存使用情况
-m以MB为单位显示内存使用情况
-h以合适的单位显示内存使用情况,最大为三位数,自动计算对应的单位值。

命令使用示例:

img

命令输出说明:

参数说明
total物理内存总数
used已经使用的内存数
free空间的内存数
share多个进程共享的内存总额
buff/cache应用使用内存数
available可用的内存数
Swap虚拟内存(阿里云ECS服务器默认不开启虚拟内存)

who

命令描述:who 命令显示关于当前在本地系统上的所有用户的信息。

命令使用示例:

  • 显示当前登录系统的用户

img

  • 显示用户登录来源

img

  • 只显示当前用户

img

  • 精简模式显示

img

last

命令描述: last 命令用于显示用户最近登录信息。

命令使用示例:

img

由于这些信息都是以日志文件的形式保存在系统中,黑客可以很容易地对内容进行篡改,所以该命令输出的信息并不能作为服务器是否被入侵的依据。

history

命令描述:history命令用于显示历史执行过的命令。

bash默认记录1000条执行过的历史命令,被记录在~/.bash_history文件中。

命令使用示例:

  • 显示最新10条执行过的命令。

img

  • 清除历史记录。

    history -c

基于ECS搭建云上博客

连接ECS服务器

1. 打开系统自带的终端工具。

  • Windows:CMD或Powershell。
  • MAC:Terminal。

Windows用户请检查系统中是否安装有ssh工具。检查方法:

1)在终端中输入命令ssh -V。

ssh -V

2)出现如下结果说明已安装。

查看ssh版本

3)否则请下载安装OpenSSH

2. 在终端中输入连接命令ssh [username]@[ipaddress]。您需要将其中的username和ipaddress替换为第1小节中创建的ECS服务器的登录名和公网地址。例如:

ssh root@123.123.123.123

img

命令显示结果如下:

img

3. 输入yes

4. 同意继续后将会提示输入登录密码。 密码为已创建的云服务的ECS的登录密码。

img

登录成功后会显示如下信息。

img

安装 Apache HTTP 服务

Apache是世界使用排名第一的Web服务器软件。它可以运行在几乎所有广泛使用的计算机平台上,由于其跨平台和安全性被广泛使用,是最流行的Web服务器端软件之一。

1. 执行如下命令,安装Apache服务及其扩展包。

yum -y install httpd httpd-manual mod_ssl mod_perl mod_auth_mysql

返回类似如下图结果则表示安装成功。

img

2. 执行如下命令,启动Apache服务。

systemctl start httpd.service

3. 测试Apache服务是否安装并启动成功。

Apache默认监听80端口,所以只需在浏览器访问ECS分配的IP地址http://<;ECS公网地址>,如下图:

img

安装 MySQL 数据库

由于使用wordpress搭建云上博客,需要使用MySQL数据库存储数据,所以这一步我们安装一下MySQL。

1. 执行如下命令,下载并安装MySQL官方的Yum Repository

wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-10.noarch.rpm
yum -y install mysql57-community-release-el7-10.noarch.rpm
yum -y install mysql-community-server

img

2. 执行如下命令,启动 MySQL 数据库。

systemctl start mysqld.service

3. 执行如下命令,查看MySQL运行状态。

systemctl status mysqld.service

img

4. 执行如下命令,查看MySQL初始密码。

grep "password" /var/log/mysqld.log

img

5. 执行如下命令,登录数据库。

mysql -uroot -p

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6. 执行如下命令,修改MySQL默认密码。

说明 新密码设置的时候如果设置的过于简单会报错,必须同时包含大小写英文字母、数字和特殊符号中的三类字符。

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'NewPassWord1.';

7. 执行如下命令,创建wordpress库。

create database wordpress; 

8. 执行如下命令,创建wordpress库。 执行如下命令,查看是否创建成功。

show databases;

9. 输入exit退出数据库。

img

安装 PHP 语言环境

WordPress是使用PHP语言开发的博客平台,用户可以在支持PHP和MySQL数据库的服务器上架设属于自己的网站。也可以把WordPress当作一个内容管理系统(CMS)来使用。

1. 执行如下命令,安装PHP环境。

yum -y install php php-mysql gd php-gd gd-devel php-xml php-common php-mbstring php-ldap php-pear php-xmlrpc php-imap

2. 执行如下命令创建PHP测试页面。

echo "<?php phpinfo(); ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php

3. 执行如下命令,重启Apache服务。

systemctl restart httpd

4. 打开浏览器,访问http://<ECS公网地址>/phpinfo.php,显示如下页面表示PHP语言环境安装成功。

img

Wordpress安装和配置

本小节将在已搭建好的LAMP 环境中,安装部署 WordPress

1. 执行如下命令,安装wordpress。

yum -y install wordpress

显示如下信息表示安装成功。

img

2. 修改WordPress配置文件。

1)执行如下命令,修改wp-config.php指向路径为绝对路径。

# 进入/usr/share/wordpress目录。
cd /usr/share/wordpress
# 修改路径。
ln -snf /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php wp-config.php
# 查看修改后的目录结构。
ll

2)执行如下命令,移动wordpress到Apache根目录。

# 在Apache的根目录/var/www/html下,创建一个wp-blog文件夹。
mkdir /var/www/html/wp-blog
mv * /var/www/html/wp-blog/

3)执行以下命令修改wp-config.php配置文件。

在执行命令前,请先替换以下三个参数值。

  • database_name_here为之前步骤中创建的数据库名称,本示例为wordpress。
  • username_here为数据库的用户名,本示例为root。
  • password_here为数据库的登录密码,本示例为NewPassWord1.。
sed -i 's/database_name_here/wordpress/' /var/www/html/wp-blog/wp-config.php
sed -i 's/username_here/root/' /var/www/html/wp-blog/wp-config.php
sed -i 's/password_here/NewPassWord1./' /var/www/html/wp-blog/wp-config.php

4)执行以下命令,查看配置文件信息是否修改成功。

cat -n /var/www/html/wp-blog/wp-config.php

img

3. 执行如下命令,重启Apache服务。

systemctl restart httpd

测试Wordpress

完成以上所有步骤后,就可以测试我们基于ECS所搭建的云上博客了。

1. 打开浏览器并访问http://<;ECS公网IP>/wp-blog/wp-admin/install.php。

2. 根据以下信息完成wordpress初始化配置。

  • Site Title:站点名称,例如:Hello ADC。
  • Username:管理员用户名,例如:admin。
  • Password:访问密码,例如:cIxWg9t@a8MJBAnf%j。
  • Your Email:email地址,建议为真实有效的地址。若没有,可以填写虚拟email地址,但将无法接收信息,例如:admin@admin.com。

img

3. 单击Install WordPress完成Wordpress初始化。

4. 单击Log In进行登录。

img

5. 输入设置的用户名和密码。

img

6. 登录后,您就可以添加博客进行发布了。

img

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